۩ DIỄN ĐÀN TRƯỜNG THPT LÝ TỰ TRỌNG-BÌNH TRỊ-THĂNG BÌNH-QUẢNG NAM۩
Chào mừng bạn đến với diễn đàn trường THPT Lý Tự Trọng

۩ DIỄN ĐÀN TRƯỜNG THPT LÝ TỰ TRỌNG-BÌNH TRỊ-THĂNG BÌNH-QUẢNG NAM۩


 
Trang ChínhLiên kếtPortalCalendarTrợ giúpTìm kiếmThành viênNhómĐăng NhậpĐăng ký
DIỄN ĐÀN ĐÃ ĐƯỢC ẨN BẠN NÊN ĐĂNG KÝ THÀNH VIÊN
  • Pics & Top Posters
Top posters
anhkuti (223)
 
administrator (217)
 
thanhlong (205)
 
no_love90 (186)
 
Kute Ngố (131)
 
hungxh (110)
 
lecuong12a (97)
 
thuystyle (87)
 
lai12a2009 (66)
 
sorry (45)
 

TOEIC Grammar1Xem chủ đề cũ hơn Xem chủ đề mới hơn Go down
Tue Oct 12, 2010 4:18 pm
avatar
[Thành viên] - phungnguyenmembers
members
Bài viết : 41
PMP : 76
Được thanks : 0
Tham gia ngày : 24/09/2010

Bài gửiTiêu đề: TOEIC Grammar1
Xem lý lịch thành viên

Tiêu đề: TOEIC Grammar1

Prepositions, Suite
During / for /
while
• During is a preposition used to say when something happened
• For is a preposition used to say how long it took
• While is a conjunction (+ subject + verb) used to introduce a background
situation
Example :
• It rained for five days during our holiday.
• We didn't get much sunshine while we were on holiday.
Like or as • Like is a preposition
− used to compare things
− synonymous with: similar to, the same as, for example
He is a broker like most of his friends.
• As is either
a preposition
− used to talk about the jobs, roles and functions of people and things
− synonymous with: in the position of, in the form of
They see the soaring oil prices as a threat to the world economy.
or a conjunction ( + subject + verb; + prepositional phrase)
− used to compare things
You should have replied as I told you.
On Monday, as on Tuesday, we start at 9.00.
Note :
• the preposition unlike (= not like) to show contrast
Unlike traditional newspapers, free newspapers offer advertisers unlimited
space.
• the adjective alike to show similarity but used only after state verbs
We are not related despite the fact that we look alike.
By / until / till /
from…to
• By shows a time limit
The River Road bridge over Interstate 495 is on schedule for completion by
October.
• Until (usually used at the beginning of a sentence) or till shows an action or
situation that continues up to a certain time
The sale of the franchise doesn't close until October.
• From ... to/until shows the beginning and end of a period of time.
He conducted at least 25 fraudulent refund transactions from October to
January.
Continued on next page
15/09/2006 v 1.00 36
Prepositions, Continued
Preposition +
noun
on purpose; by mistake/chance/accident
in my opinion; from my point of view
on holiday; on business; on a journey/trip/tour
for sale; on the market
in advance; up to date; out of date
on the whole; in general
on television; on the radio/the phone/the Internet
in writing; in pen/biro/felt-tip/ink/pencil
in cash; by check/credit card
on the way (during the journey); in the way (blocking the way)
in the end (finally, after a long time); at the end (when something stops)
by car, train, air... ; on foot
Prepositions of
space
in (into) out (of)
from to
through across
under under
below
on
above
over
around along
up down
off
on(to)
15/09/2006 v 1.00 37
Sentence structure
Word order The word order in a sentence is usually as follows :
(time) subject verb object manner place time
(Last night) The chairman delivered his speech vehemently at the conference hall last night
Tip Parallel structures express ideas of equal importance and are used in a
series.
Check that in those parallel structures the same grammatical structures
are used.
A secretary's duties include writing, typing, organizing and filing.
Parallel
structures with
correlative
conjunctions
Parallel structures should be used after correlative conjunctions:
both... and... both... and... as well as ...
not only...but also... not... but...
either… or… neither… nor…
but and
The training course consists of both theory and practical instruction.
Parallel
structures with
comparisons
Parallel structures should be used with comparisons:
• comparative… than
• as…as
• the same… as
• similar… to
Renting those apartments costs about the same as leasing them.
Note :
After comparative structures, that (of) and those (of) are used instead of
repeating a noun.
The team's overall performance is better than that of any individual could
possibly be.
Cardinal
numbers
Cardinal numbers (one, two, three...) are used as follows:
Æ + noun + cardinal number
Proceed to gate four. Wait for me on platform 2.
Note :
Ordinal numbers come before cardinal numbers as follows:
the + ordinal number + cardinal number + noun
He had trouble adjusting for the first two weeks.
Ce sujet continue page suivante
15/09/2006 v 1.00 38
Sentence structure, Suite
Ordinal
numbers
Ordinal numbers are formed as follows:
first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
fourteenth
fifteenth...
twentieth
twenty-first
twenty-second
twenty-third
twenty-fourth...
thirtieth
fortieth
fiftieth
hundredth
thousandth
They are used as follows: the + ordinal number + noun
Take the third street on the left.
Note :
The order for dates is as follows:
the + ordinal number + of + month (GB)
My birthday is the twenty-second of August.
month + (the) + ordinal number
Independence Day in the US is July (the) fourth.
Question tags A question tag is used:
• at the end of the sentence
• to encourage agreement or to verify a statement
Main clause Question tag
Subject + positive verb
The salesmen performed really well,
negative auxiliary verb + subject pronoun?
didn’t they?
Subject + negative verb
The manager won’t succeed,
positive auxiliary verb + subject pronoun?
will he?
Tip In the question tag, check that the pronoun refers to the subject of the
main clause.
Questions The word order in a question is as follows :
(Question word) + auxiliary verb + subject + verb …?
Where will they be living?
Do you speak Spanish ?
What and Who can be the subject of the verb. In that case, the verb is
conjugated as in a positive statement.
What may happen?
Who is coming to the seminar?
Ce sujet continue page suivante
15/09/2006 v 1.00 39
Sentence structure, Suite
Inversion Inversion is used in the following cases:
Case Inversion
Omission of if
auxiliary verb (were/had/should) + subject + verb
Were she my daughter (if she were…), I would tell her.
Had I known (if I had known…), I wouldn’t have come.
Should you change your mind (if you change…), let me know.
Neither, nor, so
neither/nor/so + auxiliary verb + subject
I don’t like aggressive ads. - Nor/neither do I. (= I don't either)
I really like jazz music. - So do I. (= I do also/too)
After negative
adverbial expressions
negative adverbial expression + auxiliary verb + subject
Under no circumstances can we leave the room.
Never had I felt like this.
Tip Make sure there is no inversion in indirect questions.
The pattern should be: main clause + question word + subject + verb
I don't remember what her name is.
Conjunctions Conjunctions are :
• used to join clauses together
• used to show the relationship between the ideas in the clauses
• followed by a subject and a verb
Cause/effect Place Condition Contrast Manner
as
because
in order
now that
that
since
so that
where
wherever
even if / though
if
in case
once
provided (that)
providing
unless
whether (or not)
although
even though
though
whereas
while
as
as if
as though
in that
Tip When you have two verbs in a sentence, it implies there are two clauses.
Then check there is either a semi-colon, a relative pronoun or a
conjunction that links those two clauses.
Ce sujet continue page suivante
15/09/2006 v 1.00 40
Sentence structure, Suite
No longer / no
more
• No longer/not any longer are used with time
• No more/not any more are used with time, quantity or degree
• The no structures are used before the verb or after the verb “to be”
• The not any structures are used at the end of the sentence
Example :
• Mr. Jones doesn't work here any more/longer
• He no longer fitted the job.
• There's no more paper in the photocopier.
Discourse
markers
• Linking regarding, as regards, as for
• Contrasting on the one hand ¹ on the other hand,
however, nevertheless, (and) yet,
in comparison with, compared with,
conversely
• Contradicting on the contrary, contrary to
• Adding moreover, in addition, furthermore,
what's more
• Talking about purpose in order to, so as to
• Providing reasons owing to, due to, on account of,
because of, thanks to,
• Explaining results consequently, as a result, therefore,
so, then, thus, hence
• Generalizing on the whole, in general,
broadly speaking, generally speaking,
by and large, to some extent
• Giving more exact information namely, that is to say, that is,
in other words
• Summing up to sum up, in a word, in short, briefly,
in conclusion, finally, lastly, all in all,
to conclude, accordingly
How The word order is:
• in questions:
How (+ adjective/adverb) + auxiliary verb + subject + verb?
How could I meet him?
How far can people go in the name of research?
• in exclamations:
How + adjective/adverb + subject + verb!
I know how nice he really is.
He will receive a percentage based on how well they sell.
15/09/2006 v 1.00 41
English or American: differences
Grammar
differences
Here are the main differences in grammar:
British English American English
He has just seen his former colleague.
Have you got a problem?
It fitted the mood of the moment.
It's important that he should come.
Mortgages have got more costly for
some homeowners.
He just saw his former colleague.
Do you have a problem?
It fit the mood of the moment
It's important that he come.
Mortgages have gotten more
costly for some homeowners.
Spelling
differences
Notice the differences:
English words American words
• -our
colour, honour, humour…
• -tre
centre, theatre, metre…
• -ogue
catalogue, analogue, dialogue…
• -ise
nationalise, organise…
• -isation
specialisation, standardisation…
• -ence
licence, defence…
• anaesthesia, gynaecology…
• aluminium
• to practise
• programme
• grey
• jewellery
• pyjamas
• speciality
• storey
• tyre
• doughnut
• draught
• cheque
• aeroplane
• -or
color, honor, humor…
• -ter
center, theater, meter…
• -og
catalog, analog, dialog…
• -ize
nationalize, organize…
• -ization
specialization, standardization…
• -ense
license, defense…
• anesthesia, gynecology…
• aluminum
• to practice
• program
• gray
• jewelry
• pajamas
• specialty
• story
• tire
• donut
• draft
• check
• airplane
Ce sujet continue page suivante
15/09/2006 v 1.00 42
English or American: differences, Suite
Vocabulary English American
chips french fries
spirits liquor
tin can
ground floor first floor
flat apartment
public toilet rest room
lift elevator
cupboard closet
rubbish garbage, trash
cashpoint ATM
banknote bankbill
engaged tone busy tone
mobile phone cell phone
managing director, MD CEO
rise (in salary) raise
CV resume
surname last name
post mail
postcode zip code
town centre downtown
driving licence driver's license
petrol gas
railway railroad
pavement sidewalk
underground subway
lorry truck
taxi cab
to hire to rent
return round trip
single one-way
motorway highway, freeway
autumn fall
holiday vacation
rubber eraser
trousers pants
handbag purse
shop store
queue stand in line
pharmacy, chemist drugstore
shopping centre mall
film movie
bill (restaurant) check
estate agent realtor
15/09/2006 v 1.00 43
Table of Contents
Nouns.............................................................................................................................2
Tip..............................................................................................................................2
Countable or uncountable nouns: definitions ............................................................... 2
Uncountable nouns...................................................................................................... 2
A piece of ................................................................................................................... 2
Both countable and uncountable.................................................................................. 2
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Singular and plural ...................................................................................................... 3
Hundred, thousand… .................................................................................................. 3
Forms of address ......................................................................................................... 3
Abbreviations.............................................................................................................. 3
Determiners....................................................................................................................3
Definition.................................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Articles + nouns.......................................................................................................... 3
The + place-names ...................................................................................................... 3
Idiomatic uses of articles............................................................................................. 3
The indefinite article: pronunciation............................................................................ 3
The indefinite article: some uses ................................................................................. 3
This,that.....................................................................................................................3
Some, any ................................................................................................................... 3
Some...........................................................................................................................3
Any............................................................................................................................3
Some, any: their compounds ....................................................................................... 3
Expressions of quantity ............................................................................................... 3
Little/a little...............................................................................................................3
Most...........................................................................................................................3
Each/every .................................................................................................................. 3
All/whole .................................................................................................................... 3
Pronouns........................................................................................................................3
Definition.................................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Personal pronouns....................................................................................................... 3
Relative pronouns ....................................................................................................... 3
What / which............................................................................................................... 3
That-clause.................................................................................................................. 3
Adjectives and adverbs ................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Adjectives or adverbs.................................................................................................. 3
Verbs + adjective ........................................................................................................ 3
Adjectives: -ed or -ing................................................................................................. 3
Hyphenated adjectives................................................................................................. 3
Such/so.......................................................................................................................3
Enough ....................................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Comparative and superlative ....................................................................................... 3
Irregular comparatives/ superlatives ............................................................................ 3
A lot, much... with comparatives ................................................................................. 3
As...as........................................................................................................................3
15/09/2006 v 1.00 44
Double comparatives................................................................................................... 3
The...the.....................................................................................................................3
One, some, another, other............................................................................................ 3
One, some, another, other can be adjectives and pronouns and are used as follows:..... 3
Adjectives + preposition.............................................................................................. 3
The + adjectives .......................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Adverbs in mid-position.............................................................................................. 3
Only / even ................................................................................................................. 3
Sometimes / sometime ................................................................................................ 3
Verbs and tenses ............................................................................................................. 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Auxiliary verbs ........................................................................................................... 3
English tenses ............................................................................................................. 3
State and action verbs.................................................................................................. 3
Time markers referring to the present.......................................................................... 3
Time markers referring to the past............................................................................... 3
Sequence of tenses ...................................................................................................... 3
Verbs often confused................................................................................................... 3
English ¹ American .................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Irregular verbs............................................................................................................. 3
Future perfect, function............................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Sequence of tenses with time conjunctions.................................................................. 3
Sequence of tenses in conditional sentences ................................................................ 3
Conditional conjunctions............................................................................................. 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Passive tenses.............................................................................................................. 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
The gerund.................................................................................................................. 3
Verbs + gerund (as direct object)................................................................................. 3
Verbs + preposition + gerund ...................................................................................... 3
Verb + adjective + preposition + gerund...................................................................... 3
Possessive adjective/noun + gerund............................................................................. 3
Special expressions + gerund ...................................................................................... 3
Infinitive of purpose.................................................................................................... 3
Verbs + infinitive ........................................................................................................ 3
Verbs + object + infinitive........................................................................................... 3
Too/enough + infinitive............................................................................................... 3
Verb + question word + infinitive................................................................................ 3
Verbs + gerund or infinitive ........................................................................................ 3
Verbs + verb base........................................................................................................ 3
Verbs + that + verb base.............................................................................................. 3
Verbs + object + verb base ......................................................................................... 3
Have...........................................................................................................................3
Get..............................................................................................................................3
Tell/say.......................................................................................................................3
Leave/let.....................................................................................................................3
Make or do.................................................................................................................. 3
Subject-verb agreement................................................................................................... 3
Subjects......................................................................................................................3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
15/09/2006 v 1.00 45
Subject + singular verb................................................................................................ 3
Everybody, nothing... is .............................................................................................. 3
Subject +plural verb.................................................................................................... 3
Verb agrees with the noun........................................................................................... 3
Verb agrees with positive subject ................................................................................ 3
Verb agrees with the closer noun................................................................................. 3
There/here is ............................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Prepositions....................................................................................................................3
Definition.................................................................................................................... 3
Multiple word prepositions.......................................................................................... 3
Between/among .......................................................................................................... 3
Beside/besides............................................................................................................. 3
In/on/at.......................................................................................................................3
Despite = in spite of .................................................................................................... 3
During / for / while...................................................................................................... 3
Likeor as....................................................................................................................3
By / until / till / from…to ............................................................................................ 3
Preposition + noun ...................................................................................................... 3
Prepositions of space................................................................................................... 3
Sentence structure ........................................................................................................... 3
Word order.................................................................................................................. 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Parallel structures with correlative conjunctions.......................................................... 3
Parallel structures with comparisons............................................................................ 3
Cardinal numbers ........................................................................................................ 3
Ordinal numbers ......................................................................................................... 3
Question tags .............................................................................................................. 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Questions .................................................................................................................... 3
Inversion..................................................................................................................... 3
Tip..............................................................................................................................3
Conjunctions............................................................................................................... 3
No longer / no more .................................................................................................... 3
Discourse markers....................................................................................................... 3
How............................................................................................................................3
English or American: differences .................................................................................... 3
Grammar differences................................................................................................... 3
Spelling differences..................................................................................................... 3
Vocabulary.................................................................................................................. 3



TOEIC Grammar1

Xem chủ đề cũ hơn Xem chủ đề mới hơn Về Đầu Trang
Trang 1 trong tổng số 1 trang
* Không dùng những ngôn từ thiếu lịch sự.
* Bài viết sưu tầm nên ghi rõ nguồn.
* Tránh spam nhảm không liên quan đến chủ đề.

Yêu cầu viết tiếng Việt có dấu.


Permissions in this forum:Bạn không có quyền trả lời bài viết
۩ DIỄN ĐÀN TRƯỜNG THPT LÝ TỰ TRỌNG-BÌNH TRỊ-THĂNG BÌNH-QUẢNG NAM۩ :: Anh-
Copyright © 2011 Bản quyền thuộc về DIỄN ĐÀN TRƯỜNG THPT LÝ TỰ TRỌNG - QUẢNG NAM. Designed bởi Võ Hồng Nhân.Mọi thắc mắc góp ý xin gởi về langtu.dasau.kodatinh@gmail.com hoặc 0984096102.Free forum | © phpBB | Free forum support | Liên hệ | Report an abuse | Create your own blog